Is Photographing at a Road-Kill Cafe (or at any bird feeder) Cheating? Grackles Displaying at Sunset. And Getting the Right Exposure for Silhouettes (with RawDigger help!) « Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

Is Photographing at a Road-Kill Cafe (or at any bird feeder) Cheating? Grackles Displaying at Sunset. And Getting the Right Exposure for Silhouettes (with RawDigger help!)

Is Photographing at a Road-Kill Cafe (or at any bird feeder) “Cheating”?

The other day someone commented that setting up a road-kill cafe “seemed like cheating” to her. We exchanged several e-mails. I pointed out that road-kills were natural (or un-natural if you would) food sources for the vultures but that leaving them on the road would result in some vultures (and Bald Eagles) becoming road-kill themselves. From where I sit, bird feeding is not illegal and moving the carcasses is much safer for the birds. I have no ethical problem at all photographing at a bird feeder of any type. If I did ever wish to enter one of the resulting images in a photo contest, I would strictly adhere to the rules. Some contests strictly forbid baiting, others require full disclosure, and some are OK with baiting but not with baiting with live animals (or birds).

What do you think?

Featured Image Questions

Do you prefer the lighter gold tones in Image #1 or the darker gold tones in Image #2? (Note: the two raw files were identical as far as color is concerned.)

Does anyone think that Image #1 is the stronger of today’s featured images? Why or why not>

What’s Up?

On Saturday, neighbor/friend/photographer Kathy Chaffins kindly showed me the location of a Great Horned Owl nest atop an Osprey tower. She had found one of the chicks on the ground earlier in the day. It was pretty much dark but we did see the adult perched in a tree. On Saturday morning I searched the area without success. On the way to the lake, I saw a freshly-killed raccoon along Park Drive so I headed home, got a cooler, and headed down to the lake. I put out the road-kill on the South Peninsula and within minutes several Turkey Vultures circled and landed. But with the wind from the north rather than the forecast east, I made very few images. All of the birds seemed quite skittish and none approached the carcass. I stayed in my SUV and got a ton of work done on the R5 Camera User’s e-Guide. I grabbed the recently-departed raccoon, placed it in the cooler, and remembered to put the cooler in the back-up fridge in the laundry room where it replaced last week’s armadillo.

I gave up at 9:15am, drove around to check on the two new two-chick crane families (both were fine), and then headed home. After my morning meal, I got back to work on the guide and was thrilled to finish the first draft of the now-complete Menu section. Though this will be the largest portion of the guide, I still have some work to do. And I will get more done today.

I got my AirBnB for the Merritt Island IPT yesterday. John Dupps and I are sharing and we have one extra bedroom for anyone who would like cheap lodging shared three ways.

I did quite well at sunset on Sunday. There was some nice color and with a brisk northeast wind, the birds were flying high and eventually landing toward me. I will be editing that folder today, Monday 22 February 2021. The forecast for this morning is for sunny turning partly cloudy with gentle winds from the southeast. The raccoon just might see the light of day.

This blog post took about two hours to prepare and makes sixty-four days in a row with a new one. Please remember …

Please Remember

With income from IPTs now at zero, please, if you enjoy and learn from the blog, remember to use one of my two affiliate programs when purchasing new gear. Doing so just might make it possible for me to avoid having to try to get a job as a Walmart greeter and will not cost you a single penny more. And if you use Bedfords and remember to enter the BIRDSASART code at checkout, you will save 3% on every order and enjoy free second-day air shipping. In these crazy times — I am out at least forty to sixty thousand dollars so far due to COVID 19 (with lots more to come) — remembering to use my B&H link or to shop at Bedfords will help me out a ton and be greatly appreciated. Overseas folks who cannot order from the US because of import fees, duties, and taxes, are invited to help out by clicking here to leave a blog thank you gift if they see fit.

RawDigger e-Guide with Two Videos

The RawDigger e-Guide with Two Videos

by Arthur Morris with Patrick Sparkman

The RawDigger e-Guide was created only for serious photographers who wish to get the absolute most out of their raw files.

Patrick and I began work on the guide in July 2020. At first we struggled. We asked questions. We learned about Max-G values. We puzzled as to why the Max G values for different cameras were different. IPT veteran Bart Deamer asked lots of questions that we could not answer. We got help from RawDigger creator Iliah Borg. We learned. In December, Patrick came up with an Adapted Histogram that allows us to evaluate the exposures and raw file brightness for all images created with all digital camera bodies from the last two decades. What we learned each time prompted three complete beginning to end re-writes.

The point of the guide is to teach you to truly expose to the mega-Expose-to-the-Right so that you will minimize noise, maximize image quality, best utilize your camera’s dynamic range, and attain the highest possible level of shadow detail in your RAW files in every situation. In addition, your properly exposed RAW files will contain more tonal information and feature the smoothest possible transitions between tones. And your optimized images will feature rich, accurate color.

We teach you why the GREEN channel is almost always the first to over-expose. We save you money by advising you which version of RawDigger you need. We teach you how to interpret the Max G values for your Canon, Nikon, and SONY camera bodies. It is very likely that the Shock-your-World section will shock you. And lastly — thanks to the technical and practical brilliance of Patrick Sparkman — we teach you a simple way to quickly and easily evaluate your exposures and raw file brightness using an Adapted RawDigger histogram.

The flower video takes you through a session where artie edits a folder of images in Capture One while checking the exposures and Max-G values in RawDigger. The Adapted Histogram video examines a series of recent images with the pink histograms and covers lots of fine points including and especially how to deal with specular highlights. The directions for setting up the Adapted Histogram are in the text.

If we priced this guide based on how much effort we put into it, it would sell it for $999.00. But as this guide will be purchased only by a limited number of serious photographers, we have priced it at $51.00. You can order yours here in the BAA Online Store.

Canon EOS R5 Camera User’s e-Guide

As most of you know, I have been working on a complete BAA Canon EOS R5 Camera User’s e-Guide. Because the camera and the Menus are so complex, this has required a lot of research, a lot of time, and a lot of effort (and will continue to do so until it is complete). It should be finished by late February. The final update of the R5/R6 AF e-guide has become part of the complete Camera User’s e-Guide; it will be revised if warranted.

The complete Camera User’s guide will sell for $75.00. Folks who purchased their Canon gear using my links will receive a $65.00 discount; the guide will cost them a nominal $10.00. Folks who spent more than $7500.00 on Canon mirrorless gear using either of my affiliate links (B&H or Bedfords), will receive the User’s Guide for free. Folks who purchased the R5/R6 AF e-Guide will receive a $10.00 discount on the User’s e-Guide. The best news is that the end is in sight.

Great Topaz News!

Folks who use the BAA Topaz link to purchase Sharpen AI, DeNoise AI, or the Utility Bundle (or any other Topaz plug-ins) will receive a 15% discount by entering the ARTHUR15 code at checkout. If the stuff is on sale (as it usually is), you save 15% off of the sale price! To get the discount you must use my link and you must enter the discount code. Be sure to start with this link.

Those who purchase Sharpen AI, DeNoise AI, or any other Topaz plug-ins using my link and then entering the ARTHUR15 code at checkout can e-mail to request a short Getting Started with Topaz e-Guide. Please include a copy of your Topaz receipt that shows the discount. Aside from the basics, the guide explains how to install the plug-ins so that they appear in the Photoshop Filter Menu.

New and Better Bedfords Discount Policy!

You can now save 3% on all of your Bedfords photo gear purchases by entering the BIRDSASART coupon code at checkout. Your discount will be applied to your pre-tax total. In addition, by using the code you will get 2nd day air shipping via Fed Ex.

Grab a Nikon AF-S Teleconverter TC-14E III and save $14.99. Purchase a Canon EOS R5 and your discount will be $116.97. Purchase a Sony FE 600mm f/4 GM OSS lens and save a remarkable $389.94! Your Bedford’s purchase no longer needs to be greater than $1,000.00 for you to receive a discount. The more you spend, the more you save.

Money Saving Reminder

Many have learned that if you need a hot photo item that is out of stock at B&H and would enjoy free second-day air shipping, your best bet is to click here, place an order with Bedfords, and enter the coupon code BIRDSASART at checkout. If an item is out of stock, contact Steve Elkins via e-mail or on his cell phone at (479) 381-2592 (Central time). Be sure to mention the BIRDSASART coupon code and use it for your online order to save 3% and enjoy free 2nd-day air shipping. Steve has been great at getting folks the hot items that are out of stock at B&H and everywhere else. The wait lists at the big stores can be a year or longer for the hard to get items. Steve will surely get you your gear long before that. For the past year, he has been helping BAA Blog folks get their hands on items like the SONY a9 ii, the SONY 200-600 G OSS lens, the Canon EOS R5, the Canon RF 100-500mm lens, and the Nikon 500mm PF. Steve is personable, helpful, and eager to please.

All of the images (plus lots more) were created on a very short visit at the end of January. Click on the card to enjoy a larger version.

Merritt Island NWR IPT card

Merritt Island NWR IPT

Merritt Island NWR IPT. 3 1/2 DAYS. MON 15 MAR thru the morning session on THURS 18 MAR 2021. $1499 includes three lunches. Limit: 6. Openings: 4.

When I visited — and later lived — in Deltona, FL, I made many trips to Black Point Wildlife Drive and environs. On a recent visit, I did quite well. The birds were much tamer than I remembered. I know the place well. Early spring was always best. There are tons of ducks, and wading birds including and especially both ibises. It can be great at sunrise with large flocks of shorebirds, waterfowl, ibises, and American White Pelicans filling the skies. We should get to do lots of flight photography on the causeway. At least a few good chances with Roseate Spoonbill are possible.

A $499 deposit is required to hold your spot for this IPT. You can send a check (made out to “BIRDS AS ART) to us here: BIRDS AS ART, PO Box 7245, Indian Lake Estates, FL, 3385, or call Jim or Jennifer at the office with a credit card at 863-692-0906. Your balance, payable only by check, is due immediately after you sign up. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me via e-mail. If you cancel due to COVID 19 concerns, all of your payments will be refunded.

This image was created on 10 February 2021 down by the lake near my home in ILE. I used the BLUBB-supported Sony FE 600mm f/4 GM OSS lens, the Sony FE 2.0x Teleconverter, and the blazingly fast AF King, the Sony Alpha a9 II Mirrorless Digital camera body). Multi-metering +2 stops: AUTO ISO set ISO 500. 1/500 sec. at f/8 (wide open) in Shutter Priority (S) mode. RawDigger showed that this raw file was slightly underexposed. AWB at 5:41:19pm.

Tracking Expand Flexible Spot AF-C was active at the moment of exposure and performed to perfection. Click on the image to enjoy a larger version.

Image #1: Boat-tailed Grackle males displaying

The Sunset Situation

On this late afternoon I could see from the pool deck that there were lots of clouds in the western sky.The sky had some color a bit earlier than usual so I headed right down and was happy to see two male grackles displaying side by side on The (then–recently repaired) Perch. The repair recently failed. :(.

Knowing that the two birds would not stay on The Perch forever, I grabbed the BLUBB rather than taking the time to set up the tripod in my SUV. With lots of light I knew that I could easily choose a fairly fast shutter speed. I began with 1/500 second (Image #1) and all of the images in the series were sharp. When one of the birds began singing (Image #2), I rolled the shutter speed three clicks to 1/1000 second to reduce the chances of motion blur.

I made 41 images over the next 3 minutes 20 seconds and kept eight. The final edit was done after working on this blog post. I wound up keeping only two of the displaying grackle images.

This image was created 11 seconds after Image #1. Obviously, I used the BLUBB-supported Sony FE 600mm f/4 GM OSS lens, the Sony FE 2.0x Teleconverter, and the blazingly fast AF King, the Sony Alpha a9 II Mirrorless Digital camera body). Multi-metering +2 stops: AUTO ISO set ISO 1000. 1/1000 sec. at f/8 (wide open) in Shutter Priority (S) mode. RawDigger showed that this raw file was slightly underexposed. AWB at 5:41:30pm.

Tracking Expand Flexible Spot AF-C was active at the moment of exposure and performed to perfection. Click on the image to enjoy a larger version.

Image #2: Boat-tailed Grackle males displaying/one singing

Getting the Right Exposure for Silhouettes

At +2 exposure compensation (EC), I started off with a few Zebras on the richly colored sky. After creating Image #2, I raised the EC one click to +2 1/3 stops. Those exposures were perfect. Working with RawDigger quickly reveled that pretty much all sunset (and sunrise) images that featured richly-colored skies without the sun in the frame to be grossly under-exposed. Why? Because the in-camera RGB histograms always show the RED channel to be toasted (over-exposed) when the REDs are actually fine. Now, when working in similar conditions at sunset (or sunrise), I will usually set the EC to +2 1/3- or even + 2 2/3-stops. Working with RawDigger has helped me to vastly improve the exposures of images with backgrounds of richly-colored skies. Even though the Images #1 and 2 were slight under-exposures, they were so free of background noise when viewed at 800% that I did not even need to run Topaz DeNoise on them.


In all blog posts and Bulletins, feel free to e-mail or to leave a comment regarding any typos or errors.

35 comments to Is Photographing at a Road-Kill Cafe (or at any bird feeder) Cheating? Grackles Displaying at Sunset. And Getting the Right Exposure for Silhouettes (with RawDigger help!)

  • Looking at the Histogram. Any time I see whites touching the far right I know from experience The whites will be blown out & I will loose detail.

    • Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

      Everett, Thanks for following up.

      Several things:

      1-Most of the histograms that you might be looking at are not very accurate at the highlight end.

      2- When checking the raw file in Photoshop (or LR) put the cursor on the brightest WHITEs and check the RGB values. If there are no spots with values of 255, then the image is technically not over-exposed.

      3- The very best way to evaluate a raw file is with RawDigger.

      Assuming that you are actually and consistently over-exposing the highlights, you need to learn to make better exposures.

      What system are you using?

      with love, artie

  • I do use bait to attract birds to my natural set ups, old stumps,logs. I have also learned a duck on water will bring in more ducks. It is against the law to hunt/ kill ducks with tethered decoys. I don’t think that would apply photography.

  • Guillermo Esteves

    What do you think of photographers that use branches on fixture for their birds photo set-ups?

    • Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

      Hi Guillermo, I am not 100% sure that I understand your question. By definition, a (feeder) set-up includes perches that are chosen and erected by various means. I am fine with that as long as they let folks know what they have done. Smart photographers choose handsome perches that suit the birds that might land on them.

      with love, artie

  • Rob Stambaugh

    If the feeding/baiting would be harmless in the absence of photography, then I see no problem with photography being the reason one does it.

    I like image #1 for its cleaner lines, with more of the perch displayed and nearly identical body/head angles of the birds (preferable to either bird in image #2). The background color is just fine, though I suppose I’d slightly prefer the richer background color in image #2. All in all a beautiful image, very “art”-istic.

  • Keith Swindell

    I see nothing wrong with photographing birds at feeders, especially if the food is there for the birds’ benefit more than getting photos of them. And I think it is fine to move roadkill from the road to a safer location for the birds to eat it and taking advantage of that too. Live bait would be a no for me though (although I did root for a hawk trying to grab a squirrel off of a tree in my yard a couple of years ago, the squirrel won).

  • Removing roadkill and relocating it provides protection for many of our raptors and to me is both admirable and ethical. People who have a problem with photographing animals feeding on carrion should not go to Africa where predators and vultures at a kill is a frequent occurrence.
    By the way, photographing raptors using roadkill as bait was used extensively by Roger Tory Peterson—see “All Things Reconsidered: My Birding Adventures”. Note that RTP was quite the avid bird photographer:
    “bird photography is my therapy, and I would rather shoot a roll of film on some relatively common species than add a new bird to my life list”

    Thanks Artie–your blog is greatly informative and I never miss one!

  • Pat Fishburne

    I like the symmetry in image #1.

  • Artie
    The baits setup to try and relocate the bears are done so by the DNR and yes there is a season to which one can set out bait. Plus I was told that if I wanted to take pictures off there baits do so at my own discretion. They also set traps to relocate them if it is a real problem but in general a few baits to get them to move works to get them off the residential areas.
    Who would have thought one question would raise so many comments! That is good. Than there are situations where no one comments
    with love b

    • Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

      Hey Bob,

      I just not want to see you thrown into the hoosegow! (From Mexican Spanish — juzgao, a jail, which came from juzgado — for a tribunal or courtroom.)

      Hola! Con amor,


  • Kathy J Kunce

    I guess you were looking for support for your stance on baiting, but I still wouldn’t do it. I’ve heard that someone actually set off loud noise ( like firecrackers) at the Bosque del Apache, to get the snow geese and cranes to do their sudden flying bursts, just for photos. Now that seems extreme to me.

    • Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

      Hi Kathy,

      I do not need your or anyone else’s support for setting up a road kill cafe. As I said to you via e-mail it is safer for the birds to move the carcasses off of active roadways. And it is neither illegal nor unethical to photograph in such situations. All that I did was ask a question.

      With your original comment, it seemed that you had an axe to grind against photographers. And with this follow-up that is abundantly clear. If you choose not to photograph at a bird feeder, I am fine with that. But equating that with intentionally disturbing birds with fireworks or otherwise is patently ridiculous.

      with love, a

  • Hi Artie
    I have no issue at all with baiting birds as long as it is not live bait I am on your radar Artie. As regarding feeding stations I am fine with that to. Thirty years ago there was just one pair of Red Kites left Central Wales some good people bought in Red Kites from Europe and set up feeding stations in this area and now the Kites have colonised the hole UK how good is that? The UK
    has some wonderful organisations that our helping the the re-introduction of endangered birds species like Osprey, White Tailed Eagles, and European Cranes.
    Best and love

  • I photograph the birds on the bird feeders in my backyard and sometimes a deer comes through checking on the ground below the feeder on a pole. I photo the deer also! At certain times of the year a mom bird is feeding one or two bird kids on one of my feeders. I have photos of those in my book “Daddy Mommy and Me” with birds of a variety and also animals of a variety (in backyard and in US and foreign national parks). People buy my book for their kids.
    I always enjoy Arthur’s information and suggestions!!

  • David J Policansky

    Hi, Artie. If what you do doesn’t harm the birds, I have no problem with it and you’re honest about how you make your images, so that’s all good. I like image 1 better because I prefer the composition and the birds’ poses.

  • IMHO bird feeder/setup photos are not cheating. Beautiful photos or watching birds at one’s feeders brings to people a greater love of them. Cornell’s Sapsucker Woods (a great scientific research and help for birds institution) puts out bird feeders. Carcasses in wild areas seems natural. Baiting bears etc. with human food near developed areas, which causes them to habituate with people is absolutely not good. But feeders changing bird behavior somewhat has not proven to have bad consequences .
    Both background colors seem equally good and beautiful to me. I like the two birds in #1 being identical in shape. In #2 I like the singing bird. But I like the composition of bird duplication in #1 even better.

  • Artie
    The problem here in Wisconsin in areas where Bears actually go to homes looking for food and thus we work with the DNR to put out different baits to lure them away from homes and by regulating the food placed in a bait the Bears have gone back to there more natural feeding. Baiting has always been and always will be a controversal subject.
    We had a woman here cooking inside her home with her patio door open other than the screen and a Bear near 500 lbs made his way into her home and destroyed most things in his way in the kitchen. The woman was not hurt. This is more of an over population of Bears than anything else. Was he baited. No just trying to survive! These Bears would be in fact destroyed if not lured away from homes. Every animal bird or otherwise will do whatever necessary to get food natural or otherwise. In a lot of cases birds would not survive without bird feeders.
    Baiting…..a long subject habituating wildlife or helping (in some) cases to survive. AND why not get some photographs as well. If you are lucky enough at times.
    Fishing with worms, minnows, lures could be considered baiting!
    with love b

  • Adam

    Baiting = Cheating? Only if one misrepresents it as so though I think the question of whether baiting is ethical is a much more complex and challenging subject. There are definitely issues with habituating wildlife and frequently out West bears, fox, and other animals are destroyed if they become accustomed to humans and food sources. A reasonable argument can be made with respect to removing carcasses from the roadside to minimize collateral kills, and I don’t take issue with that approach. Interestingly, most people don’t take issue with placing bird feeders out in their backyards though in some sense that tips the balance of nature.

    Humans have a long history of domesticating wildlife and influencing the environment and while some think of it as a zero sum game, I tend to take a more nuanced, balanced approach of trying to be a good steward and minimizing an adverse impact. Moving a dead armadillo off the road to another location can hardly be construed as the same as hand feeding a fox in a parking lot. Nearby there is a park where the passerines have become so docile that they feed out of peoples’ hands. It has become a “draw” for visitors and everything from black capped chickadees to downy woodpeckers depend on these handouts. In one respect it has allowed the number of birds to flourish, albeit artificially, although another consideration is that if it influences people to be more mindful of their environment and develop a greater respect for life then the tradeoff may be worth it. These are truly complex issues and it reminds us that while nature can be stunning and amazing, the realities are that irrespective of human influence nature’s manifest is also harsh and cruel.

    • Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

      Thanks as always, Adam for your thoughtful comments.

      I believe that with habitat detraction feeders have helped to grow populations of various urban species. And certainly habituation mammals like bears and foxes is a bad idea and is forbidden by law in many places. I personally do not see a huge problem with chickadees and the like taking a sunflower seed from the hand of a usually enthralled human who very well might become more environmentally involved as a result of the experience … Or not.

      with love, a

  • Jim Spilman

    Thank you Artie for what you do and cause us to think about. Is it A 1 time yet!!!!!!!

  • Howdy Artie
    Here in Wisconsin it is near everyday one can see a road killed something (deer, coon, rabbits) to name a few and one can see hawks, eagles, crows, turkey vultures, coyote, feeding on the remains. I have also seen the sadness of a vulture or a hawk getting hit as well when they take off from a kill so to relocate them is ok IMO. Setting up near feed is also ok, i often sit near a corn field and see deer come to feed, is that cheating? This coming fall i have arranged to sit near bait to photograph Black Bear coming in and i will be on the ground. Going to be exciting.
    Guys in the ocean throw out chum for sharks!
    I love image #2 with the displaying and the golden BG.
    Finally out of the deep freeze here after 15 plus days below zero and some -30 plus, today we have 15 degrees and on the way to mid to upper 20ies
    with love b

    • Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

      Thanks for your comments. You need to be very careful about bear-feeding. And bear-baiting. It may be illegal in your state. You do not want to have bears associate food with humans …

      Glad to hear that spring is coming to Wisconsin.

      with love, a

  • No problem for me. I photograph songbirds at my backyard bird feeder setup all winter long. Every single image I post on social media clearly states that the bird was photographed at the setup. My issue is with photographers that bait and don’t disclose such info.

  • Joel Eade

    I’m not sure what rule you would be breaking or how it would be “cheating” at anything to photograph birds near a food source provided by people. If it were illegal we would see about 90% less bird pictures on the web.

    A quick internet search revealed that there is recorded history of people feeding wild birds back to the 6th century and commercially produced bird feeders have been around almost 100 years.

    No doubt there are incidences where it has caused problems such as birds flying into windows or perhaps being more open to predators like Coopers Hawks but on the whole it would be tough to argue that the practice of bird feeding is harmful.

    Also on a web search I saw a stat that reports there are about 50 million Americans that feed wild birds up to 1 billion pounds of food annually. Bird feeding is considered the second most popular hobby in America.

    There is actually a National Bird Feeding Month that was declared by Congress in 1994.

    The idea of this being cheating, in my mind, would only be if you told someone that your image was obtained in some other way.

    • Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

      I see raptors grabbing a bird near a feeder as just another form of bird feeding. Raptors gotta eat too. It is important to have the feeder near cover and to clean it once a month to prevent the spread of any avian diseases.

      Again, I agree on honest disclosure.

      Thanks for your excellent comments above.

      with love, a

  • Gloria Matyszyk

    Not cheating at all. If you photographed a bear in Yellowstone feeding on a bison calf, is that cheating? No. Someone might say, good find! Birds on or near a feeder or road kill – again that is not cheating. If the photographer represents that the birds at a feeder were shot in the wild, then that’s different. Not semantics but that is ethics.

  • This is not a reply to your comet, but one to another. My experience has been if I expose too far to the right I will blow out the Whites. Am I doing something wrong?

  • Mike Hannisian

    I have heard the same comment from a birder that shooting birds at feeders was cheating. I asked if he counted birds he saw at feeders and he said yes. So I asked him how was photographing them different and, after a pause, said he guessed they were not different.

    • Arthur Morris/BIRDS AS ART

      Thanks, Mike. The lady that asked the question was OK with bird feeding but not with photographers photographing at set-ups. “They always disturb the birds.”

      As you might imagine, that makes zero sense to me.

      with love, a

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